Samson hatched in the Manhattan Clan's rookery in 2158.  A young warrior tutored in both Manhattan and Ishimura, he was eventually made second-in-command of his clan.  During his training in Ishimura, he became close friends with Zafiro, Nicholas Natsilane Maza and Delilah.
Samson was on guard duty at the base of the caldera on Queen Florence Island when the Space-Spawn attacked Earth on March 21st, 2198 and witnessed their kidnapping of the human, New Olympian and gargoyle leaders, as well as the gargoyle eggs.  He forms a resistance cell, including Delilah as his second, Zafiro, Nick Maza, Owen Burnett, Nokkar, Demona, Brooklyn, Fu-Dog, LXM-994, and LXM-1057, determined to free Earth from the alien invaders.  Samson and Delilah will develop a romantic relationship during the resistance. 
Samson strongly resembles Goliath, his ancestor, though his coloring is different. Given this strong resemblance to Goliath, it is clear he is descended from him through Broadway and Angela's mating, though the exact details of his descent are unknown. He might be the biological grandson of Artus or Gwenyvere, or the biological son of Lancelot; it hardly matters, considering that gargoyle children are raised by the entire clan. 
Behind The Scenes
Samson will be the first lead of the proposed spin-off Gargoyles 2198. Originally he was developed as an older, statesman like character with a dead mate, and hatchlings. He would also have been the third hatchling of Broadway and Angela. But that before Greg Weisman re-developed Gargoyles 2158 as Gargoyles 2198, and Samson was revamped as a younger character, whose parentage is unknown. 
Real World Background
Samson was named after the famous ancient Israelite "strong man" in the Old Testament (Judges 13-16), a figure whose name has become a byword for strength. His name bears a strong significance for how humans will feel about gargoyles in the future; like his ancestor Goliath, Samson is named after a "mighty man" of the Bible, but this time a hero rather than a villain.